Italian firefighters said the roof of San Giuseppe dei Falegnami church in Rome, Italy caved in and damaged the chapel below it on Thursday.
No one is reported to have been inside the church at the time of the collapse, though firefighters and sniffer dogs were called to comb the wreckage as a precaution.
A priest who was inside an adjoining building is said to be uninjured.
Around three-quarters of the church roof is believed to have fallen in. A crane was used to remove remaining parts that emergency teams judged to be unstables.
It is not yet clear what caused the collapse, which is reported to have sent up a large cloud of dust visible from some distance.
The Chapel of the Crucifix, a 16th-century chapel that lies beneath, is also thought to have suffered damage, though archaeological authorities said it was minimal.